List of governors of Maine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Seal of the governor of Maine
The Blaine House is the official residence of the governor of Maine. The Executive Mansion was officially declared the residence of the governor in 1919 with the name "The Blaine House". It is located in Augusta, Maine, across the street from the Maine State House.

The governor of Maine is the head of government of Maine[1] and the commander-in-chief of its military forces.[2] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws,[3] and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Maine Legislature,[4] to convene the legislature at any time,[5] and, except in cases of impeachment, to grant pardons.[6]

There have been 71 governors of Maine since statehood, serving 75 distinct terms. Four governors served multiple non-consecutive terms (Edward Kent, John Fairfield, John W. Dana, and Burton M. Cross).[7] The longest-serving governor was Joseph E. Brennan, who served two terms from 1979 to 1987. The shortest-serving governors were Nathaniel M. Haskell and Richard H. Vose, who each served only one day. John W. Dana also served for one day in 1844, after the incumbent governor resigned, but was later elected to the governorship. The current governor is Democrat Janet Mills, who took office on January 2, 2019.

Governors[edit]

The District of Maine of Massachusetts was admitted to the Union on March 15, 1820, as the State of Maine.[8] The Maine Constitution of 1820 originally established a gubernatorial term of one year,[9] to begin on the first Wednesday of January; constitutional amendments expanded this to two years in 1879[10] and to four years in 1957.[11] The 1957 amendment also prohibited governors from succeeding themselves after serving two terms.[11] The constitution does not establish an office of lieutenant governor; a vacancy in the office of governor is filled by the president of the Maine Senate.[12] Prior to an amendment in 1964, the president of the senate only acted as governor.[13][14]

Governors of the State of Maine
No.[a] Governor Term in office Party Election
1   William King
(1768–1852)
[15][16]
May 31, 1820[17]

May 28, 1821
(resigned)[b]
Democratic–
Republican
[18]
1820
2 William D. Williamson
(1779–1846)
[19][20]
May 28, 1821[21]

December 25, 1821
(resigned)[c]
Democratic–
Republican
[22]
President of
the Senate
acting
3 Benjamin Ames
(1778–1835)
[19][23]
December 25, 1821[22]

January 2, 1822
(resigned)[d]
Democratic–
Republican
[22]
Speaker of
the House
acting
4 Daniel Rose
(1772–1833)
[25][26]
January 2, 1822[24]

January 4, 1822
(successor took office)
Democratic–
Republican
[22]
President of
the Senate
acting
5 Albion Parris
(1788–1857)
[25][27]
January 4, 1822[28]

January 3, 1827
(did not run)[e]
Democratic–
Republican
[30]
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
6 Enoch Lincoln
(1788–1829)
[31][32]
January 3, 1827[33]

October 8, 1829
(died in office)
Democratic–
Republican
[34]
1826
1827
1828
7 Nathan Cutler
(1775–1861)
[35][36]
October 8, 1829[37]

February 5, 1830
(presidency expired)[f]
Democratic–
Republican
[g]
President of
the Senate
acting
8 Joshua Hall
(1768–1862)
[38][40]
February 5, 1830[22]

February 10, 1830
(successor took office)
Democratic–
Republican
[39]
Speaker of
the House
acting
9 Jonathan G. Hunton
(1781–1851)
[38][41]
February 10, 1830[42]

January 8, 1831
(lost election)
National
Republican
[34]
1829
10 Samuel E. Smith
(1788–1860)
[43][44]
January 8, 1831[45]

January 2, 1834
(did not run)
Democratic[h] 1830
1831
1832
11 Robert P. Dunlap
(1794–1859)
[48][49]
January 2, 1834[50]

January 3, 1838
(did not run)
Democratic[51] 1833
1834
1835
1836
12 Edward Kent
(1802–1877)
[52][53]
January 19, 1838[i]

January 2, 1839
(lost election)
Whig[55] 1837
13 John Fairfield
(1797–1847)
[56][57]
January 2, 1839[22]

January 12, 1841
(lost election)[j]
Democratic[55] 1838
1839
14 Richard H. Vose
(1803–1864)
[60][61]
January 12, 1841[j]

January 13, 1841
(successor took office)
Whig[39] President of
the Senate
acting
15 Edward Kent
(1802–1877)
[52][53]
January 13, 1841[62]

January 5, 1842
(lost election)
Whig[63] 1840
16 John Fairfield
(1797–1847)
[56][57]
January 5, 1842[64]

March 7, 1843
(resigned)[k]
Democratic[63] 1841
1842
17 Edward Kavanagh
(1795–1844)
[65][66]
March 7, 1843[67]

January 1, 1844
(resigned)[l]
Democratic[39] President of
the Senate
acting
18 David Dunn
(1811–1894)
[69][70]
January 1, 1844[71]

January 3, 1844
(resigned)[m]
Democratic[39] Speaker of
the House
acting
19 John W. Dana
(1808–1867)
[73][74]
January 3, 1844[22]

January 5, 1844
(successor took office)
Democratic[39] President of
the Senate
acting
20 Hugh J. Anderson
(1801–1881)
[75][76]
January 5, 1844[77]

May 18, 1847
(did not run)
Democratic[78] 1843
1844
1845
21 John W. Dana
(1808–1867)
[73][74]
May 18, 1847[79]

May 13, 1850
(did not run)
Democratic[80] 1846
1847
1848
22 John Hubbard
(1794–1869)
[81][82]
May 13, 1850[83]

January 18, 1853
(lost election)
Democratic[80] 1849
1850
23 William G. Crosby
(1805–1881)
[84][85]
January 18, 1853[86]

January 6, 1855
(did not run)
Whig[87] 1852
1853
24 Anson Morrill
(1803–1887)
[88][89]
January 6, 1855[90]

January 4, 1856
(lost election)
Republican[n] 1854
25 Samuel Wells
(1801–1868)
[91][92]
January 4, 1856[93]

January 8, 1857
(lost election)
Democratic[94] 1855
26 Hannibal Hamlin
(1809–1891)
[95][96]
January 8, 1857[97]

February 26, 1857
(resigned)[o]
Republican[94] 1856
27 Joseph H. Williams
(1814–1896)
[99][100]
February 26, 1857[101]

January 8, 1858
(did not run)
Republican[22] President of
the Senate
acting
28 Lot M. Morrill
(1813–1883)
[102][103]
January 8, 1858[104]

January 3, 1861
(did not run)
Republican[105] 1857
1858
1859
29 Israel Washburn Jr.
(1813–1883)
[106][107]
January 3, 1861[108]

January 8, 1863
(did not run)
Republican[105] 1860
1861
30 Abner Coburn
(1803–1885)
[109][110]
January 8, 1863[111]

January 7, 1864
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1862
31 Samuel Cony
(1811–1870)
[112][113]
January 7, 1864[114]

January 3, 1867
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1863
1864
1865
32 Joshua Chamberlain
(1828–1914)
[115][116]
January 3, 1867[117]

January 5, 1871
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1866
1867
1868
1869
33 Sidney Perham
(1819–1907)
[118][119]
January 5, 1871[120]

January 8, 1874
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1870
1871
1872
34 Nelson Dingley Jr.
(1832–1899)
[121][122]
January 8, 1874[123]

January 6, 1876
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1873
1874
35 Seldon Connor
(1839–1917)
[124][125]
January 6, 1876[126]

January 8, 1879
(lost election)
Republican[22] 1875
1876
1877
36 Alonzo Garcelon
(1813–1906)
[127][128]
January 8, 1879[129]

January 17, 1880
(did not run)
Democratic[22] 1878
37 Daniel F. Davis
(1843–1897)
[130][131]
January 17, 1880[p]

January 13, 1881
(lost election)
Republican[22] 1879
38 Harris M. Plaisted
(1828–1898)
[134][135]
January 13, 1881[136]

January 4, 1883
(lost election)
Greenback/
Democratic[q]
1880
39 Frederick Robie
(1822–1912)
[139][140]
January 4, 1883[141]

January 6, 1887
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1882
1884
40 Joseph R. Bodwell
(1818–1887)
[142][143]
January 6, 1887[144]

December 15, 1887
(died in office)
Republican[22] 1886
41 Sebastian Streeter Marble
(1817–1902)
[145][146]
December 15, 1887[147]

January 3, 1889
(lost nomination)[r]
Republican[22] President of
the Senate
acting
42 Edwin C. Burleigh
(1843–1916)
[148][149]
January 3, 1889[150]

January 5, 1893
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1888
1890
43 Henry B. Cleaves
(1840–1912)
[151][152]
January 5, 1893[153]

January 7, 1897
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1892
1894
44 Llewellyn Powers
(1836–1908)
[154][155]
January 7, 1897[156]

January 3, 1901
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1896
1898
45 John Fremont Hill
(1855–1912)
[157][158]
January 3, 1901[159]

January 5, 1905
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1900
1902
46 William T. Cobb
(1857–1937)
[160][161]
January 5, 1905[162]

January 7, 1909
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1904
1906
47 Bert M. Fernald
(1858–1926)
[163][164]
January 7, 1909[165]

January 5, 1911
(lost election)
Republican[22] 1908
48 Frederick W. Plaisted
(1865–1943)
[166][167]
January 5, 1911[168]

January 2, 1913
(lost election)
Democratic[22] 1910
49 William T. Haines
(1854–1919)
[169][170]
January 2, 1913[171]

January 7, 1915
(lost election)
Republican[22] 1912
50 Oakley C. Curtis
(1865–1924)
[172][173]
January 7, 1915[174]

January 4, 1917
(lost election)
Democratic[22] 1914
51 Carl Milliken
(1877–1961)
[175][176]
January 4, 1917[177]

January 6, 1921
(lost nomination)[s]
Republican[22] 1916
1918
52 Frederic Hale Parkhurst
(1864–1921)
[179][180]
January 6, 1921[181]

January 31, 1921
(died in office)
Republican[22] 1920
53 Percival P. Baxter
(1876–1969)
[182][183]
January 31, 1921[184]

January 8, 1925
(did not run)
Republican[22] President of
the Senate
acting
1922
54 Ralph Owen Brewster
(1888–1961)
[185][186]
January 8, 1925[187]

January 3, 1929
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1924
1926
55 William Tudor Gardiner
(1892–1953)
[188][189]
January 3, 1929[190]

January 5, 1933
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1928
1930
56 Louis J. Brann
(1876–1948)
[191][192]
January 5, 1933[193]

January 7, 1937
(did not run)
Democratic[22] 1932
1934
57 Lewis O. Barrows
(1893–1967)
[194][195]
January 7, 1937[196]

January 2, 1941
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1936
1938
58 Sumner Sewall
(1897–1965)
[197][198]
January 2, 1941[199]

January 4, 1945
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1940
1942
59 Horace Hildreth
(1902–1988)
[200][201]
January 4, 1945[202]

January 6, 1949
(did not run)
Republican[22] 1944
1946
60 Frederick G. Payne
(1904–1978)
[203][204]
January 6, 1949[205]

December 25, 1952
(resigned)[t]
Republican[22] 1948
1950
Burton M. Cross
(1902–1998)
[206][207]
December 26, 1952[u]

January 7, 1953
(presidency expired)[u]
Republican[22] President of
the Senate
acting
Nathaniel M. Haskell
(1912–1983)
January 7, 1953[u]

January 8, 1953
(successor took office)[u]
Republican[22] President of
the Senate
acting
61 Burton M. Cross
(1902–1998)
[206][207]
January 8, 1953[210]

January 6, 1955
(lost election)
Republican[22] 1952
62 Edmund Muskie
(1914–1996)
[211][212]
January 6, 1955[213]

January 2, 1959
(resigned)[v]
Democratic[22] 1954
1956
63 Robert Haskell
(1903–1987)
[214][215]
January 3, 1959[216]

January 8, 1959
(successor took office)
Republican[22] President of
the Senate
acting
64 Clinton Clauson
(1895–1959)
[217][218]
January 8, 1959[219]

December 30, 1959
(died in office)
Democratic[22] 1958
65 John H. Reed
(1921–2012)
[220][221]
December 30, 1959[222]

January 5, 1967
(lost election)
Republican[22] President of
the Senate
acting
1960
(special)
1962
66 Kenneth M. Curtis
(b. 1931)
[223][224]
January 5, 1967[225]

January 2, 1975
(term-limited)
Democratic[22] 1966
1970
67 James B. Longley
(1924–1980)
[226][227]
January 2, 1975[228]

January 3, 1979
(did not run)
Independent[22] 1974
68 Joseph E. Brennan
(b. 1934)
[229]
January 4, 1979[230]

January 8, 1987
(term-limited)
Democratic[229] 1978
1982
70[a] John R. McKernan Jr.
(b. 1948)
[232]
January 8, 1987[233]

January 5, 1995
(term-limited)
Republican[232] 1986
1990
71 Angus King
(b. 1944)
[234]
January 5, 1995[235]

January 8, 2003
(term-limited)
Independent[234] 1994
1998
72 John Baldacci
(b. 1955)
[236]
January 8, 2003[237]

January 5, 2011
(term-limited)
Democratic[236] 2002
2006
73 Paul LePage
(b. 1948)
[238]
January 5, 2011[239]

January 2, 2019
(term-limited)
Republican[238] 2010
2014
74 Janet Mills
(b. 1947)
[240]
January 2, 2019[241]

Incumbent[w]
Democratic[240] 2018
2022

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The numbering from the Maine State Law and Legislative Reference Library notes that, in the past, Burton M. Cross and Nathaniel M. Haskell's short terms in 1952–1953 were not counted, and they corrected the count by one prior to John R. McKernan Jr.'s inauguration.[231]
  2. ^ King resigned to be a commissioner for the adjustment of Spanish claims in Florida.[15]
  3. ^ Williamson resigned, having been elected to the United States House of Representatives.[19]
  4. ^ Ames felt that, with a new Maine Senate, the new president of the Senate should take office, and resigned upon Daniel Rose being elected.[24]
  5. ^ Sobel says Parris resigned upon being elected to the United States Senate;[25] however, he was not elected until January 31.[29]
  6. ^ The Senate that Cutler was president of had ended, and there was controversy over if he could remain governor; the Maine Supreme Court ruled against him. Sobel says that he resigned at this point, but no source corroborates this.[38]
  7. ^ Sobel describes Cutler as a Democrat,[35] but Kallenbach[22] and Glashan[39] label him a Democratic-Republican.
  8. ^ Sources label Smith either a Jacksonian Democrat[46][22] or a Democratic-Republican.[43][47]
  9. ^ Kent won a close election, but Democrats challenged the election. He was finally declared winner by the Maine Supreme Court and sworn in on January 19, 1838.[54] Dunlap left office on January 3,[48] but no source mentions if the president of the Senate acted as governor in the interim.
  10. ^ a b The 1840 election was very close, and the legislature had to decide a winner. Due to the delay, President of the Senate Vose declared himself acting governor on January 12, 1841,[58] under the principle that the office was vacant, so it fell to him.[59] Sobel writes that Vose took over after Fairfield resigned, but this appears to be a mistake, mixing it up with Fairfield's resignation in 1843.
  11. ^ Fairfield resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[56]
  12. ^ Kavanagh resigned due to ill health;[68] he died 19 days later.
  13. ^ Dunn resigned once the new Maine Legislature was sworn in and a president of the Senate chosen.[69][72]
  14. ^ Dubin[87] and Kallenbach[22] label Morrill an "Anti Maine-Law" and American, Glashan labels him an "Anti-Nebraska Fusion (Republican)"[47] and Sobel simply labels him Republican.[88]
  15. ^ Hamlin resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[98]
  16. ^ The 1879 election was not close, but at the time a governor had to receive a majority of votes cast, and Davis fell slightly short. Governor Garcelon refused to certify new Republican members of the legislature, instead seating Democrats, which led to the State Supreme Court ruling against him.[130] A Fusionist legislature declared Joseph L. Smith the winner, and inaugurated him on January 17;[132] however, this was not considered legitimate, and Davis was inaugurated later that day when the Republican legislature met.[133]
  17. ^ Kallenbach[137] and Sobel[134] label Plaisted as a Democrat and Greenback, while Glashan describes him as "National (or Greenback Labor)".[138]
  18. ^ Marble lost the Republican nomination to Edwin C. Burleigh.[145]
  19. ^ Milliken lost the Republican nomination to Frederic Hale Parkhurst.[178]
  20. ^ Payne resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[206]
  21. ^ a b c d Frederick G. Payne resigned at midnight December 25, 1952, and President of the Senate Burton M. Cross became acting governor at 12:01am on December 26.[208] Cross had already been elected to the post, and would take office on January 8, 1953. However, the new Senate elected Nathaniel M. Haskell as president on January 7, so he took over as acting governor for less than a day.[209]
  22. ^ Muskie resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[211]
  23. ^ Mills' second term began on January 4, 2023, and will expire January 6, 2027; she will be term-limited.

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 1.
  2. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 7.
  3. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 12.
  4. ^ ME Const. art. IV (Pt. III), § 3.
  5. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 13.
  6. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 11.
  7. ^ Governors of Maine. Maine State Law and Legislative Reference Library.
  8. ^ "Mass Moments: Massachusetts Loses Maine". Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  9. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 2, orig.
  10. ^ ME Const. Amend. 23.
  11. ^ a b ME Const. Amend. 84.
  12. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 14.
  13. ^ ME Const. Amend. 97.
  14. ^ ME Const. art. V (Pt. I), § 14, orig.
  15. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 595.
  16. ^ "William King". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  17. ^ "General Election". The Portland Gazette. June 6, 1820. p. 1. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  18. ^ Dubin 2003, p. 87.
  19. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, p. 596.
  20. ^ "William Durkee Williamson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  21. ^ "none". The Portland Gazette. May 29, 1821. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023. The Hon. William D. Williamson President of the Senate upon whom the duties of Governour devolve by the constitution...
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax Kallenbach 1977, pp. 233–235.
  23. ^ "Benjamin Ames". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  24. ^ a b "Legislature of Maine". The Portland Gazette. January 4, 1822. p. 2. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  25. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, p. 597.
  26. ^ "Daniel Rose". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  27. ^ "Albion Keith Parris". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  28. ^ "Legislature of Maine". The Portland Gazette. January 8, 1822. p. 2. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  29. ^ "Senator to Congress Elected". Eastern Argus. February 2, 1827. p. 2. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  30. ^ Dubin 2003, pp. 87–88.
  31. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 598.
  32. ^ "Enoch Lincoln". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  33. ^ "State Legislature". Eastern Argus. January 5, 1827. p. 3. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  34. ^ a b Dubin 2003, p. 88.
  35. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 598–599.
  36. ^ "Nathan Cutler". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  37. ^ "Death of Gov. Lincoln". Vermont Watchman and State Journal. October 27, 1829. p. 1. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  38. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, p. 599.
  39. ^ a b c d e f Glashan 1979, p. 120.
  40. ^ "Joshua Hall". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  41. ^ "Jonathan Glidden Hunton". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  42. ^ "Legislature of Maine". Eastern Argus. February 12, 1830. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  43. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 600.
  44. ^ "Samuel Emerson Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  45. ^ "Maine Legislature". Eastern Argus. January 11, 1831. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  46. ^ Dubin 2003, p. 89.
  47. ^ a b Glashan 1979, p. 124.
  48. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 600–601.
  49. ^ "Robert Pinckney Dunlap". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  50. ^ "Maine Legislature". Eastern Argus. January 6, 1834. p. 3. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  51. ^ Dubin 2003, pp. 89–90.
  52. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 601–602.
  53. ^ a b "Edward Kent". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  54. ^ "Maine Legislature". Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. January 22, 1838. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  55. ^ a b Dubin 2003, p. 90.
  56. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, p. 602.
  57. ^ a b "John Fairfield". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  58. ^ "Maine Legislature". Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. January 14, 1841. p. 2. Retrieved March 4, 2023.
  59. ^ "Courtesy vs. the Constitution". Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. January 15, 1841. p. 2. Retrieved March 4, 2023.
  60. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 602–603.
  61. ^ "Richard H. Vose". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  62. ^ "Latest From Augusta". Portland Press Herald. January 14, 1841. p. 3. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  63. ^ a b Dubin 2003, p. 91.
  64. ^ "Legislature of Maine". Lincoln Telegraph. January 13, 1842. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  65. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 603–604.
  66. ^ "Edward Kavanagh". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  67. ^ "Maine Legislature". Eastern Argus. March 8, 1843. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  68. ^ Lucey, William Leo (2006). Edward Kavanagh: Catholic, Statesman, Diplomat, from Maine 1795–1844. Kessinger Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4286-5468-6.
  69. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 604.
  70. ^ "David Dunn". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  71. ^ "Legislature of Maine". Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. January 5, 1844. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  72. ^ The Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA): p. 2. January 11, 1844. "Hon. David Dunn, as Speaker of the House for 1843, entered upon the discharge of the duties of that office on Tuesday, and continued to discharge them until he had completed the administration of the necessary oaths to the members of the Senate and House, yesterday. He then resigned that place, and took his seat in the House."
  73. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 604–605.
  74. ^ a b "John Winchester Dana". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  75. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 605.
  76. ^ "Hugh Johnson Anderson". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  77. ^ "Legislature of Maine". Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. January 8, 1844. p. 2. Retrieved September 2, 2023.
  78. ^ Dubin 2003, pp. 91–92.
  79. ^ "Legislature of Maine". Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. May 22, 1847. p. 3. Retrieved September 13, 2023.
  80. ^ a b Dubin 2003, p. 92.
  81. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 606.
  82. ^ "John Hubbard". National Governors Association. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  83. ^ "Augusta Correspondence". Bangor Daily Whig and Courier. May 15, 1850. p. 2. Retrieved September 13, 2023.
  84. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 607.
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